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ranks. This spirit has been waning a long while, yet it is a matter of common observation that it is
still a force to be reckoned with.

Religious toleration grew out of the Reformation, although the non-Catholic churches
persecuted freely and even severely, burning some of the more prominent offenders at the stake.
The Church of Rome went further and resorted to wholesale massacre. The Huguenots of France

were either murdered or had to get out of their native land the easiest way possible. The
government of England worried the Protestant non-conformists as well as the Catholics.

Crime perpetrated in the name of religion was the leading cause in the peopling of America.
Thus were driven the Puritans to New England, the Quakers to Pennsylvania, the Catholics to
Maryland, and the Presbyterians to the Middle Colonies.

The tragedy of the Thirty Years War, occurring in the first half of the seventeenth century, shook
Germany to its foundations. Three-fourths of its population perished, and the country was set back
one hundred and fifty years in its civilization. In this long drawn out contest religious and political
ambitions were interwoven. But war continued to follow war at short intervals, and the Germans
had a surfeit of strife that lasted until the full development of militarism since 1860.

On the left bank of the Rhine and adjacent to the frontier of France is the fine region known as
the Palatinate. It is one-half the size of New Jersey and is justly called the garden spot of Germany.
The Palatines, as the inhabitants are called, possess the steadiness, thoroughness, and industry
that are characteristic of the German nation. They are good gardeners and are fond of flowers.
John Fiske has remarked that in going from Strasburg to Rotterdam by way of the Palatinate, "one
is perpetually struck with the general diffusion of intelligence, refinement, strength of character,
and personal dignity."

One of the later episodes of the intermittent warfare of which we have just spoken was the
devastation of this fertile province. Three times was it laid waste within twenty years, the last time,
—in 1693,—with a ferocity which recalls the far more horrible doings of the German armies in
Belgium and France in 1914-18. Dwellings were burned, orchards were cut down, wells were filled
up, and cemeteries were violated. This havoc is justly regarded as one of the darkest pages in the

history of Europe, although it has been cast into the background by the diabolic infamies
perpetrated during the recent war by the express command of the German government.

The Palatines were almost wholly Protestant at this time, and they suffered because they were
not Catholics. But although their oppressors had the power to make them homeless and destitute,
they could not make them recant. William Penn visited the Rhine and addressed the refugees in
their own tongue. He invited them to go to his colony of Pennsylvania. A few of them migrated as
early as 1683, and founded Germantown, then six miles from Philadelphia, but now a part of that
city. One of the emigrants wrote back that, "what pleases me here is that one can be peasant,
scholar, priest, and nobleman at the same time." Favorable reports like this were certain to induce
further emigration. After 1702, and particular after 1726, the German emigration became heavy. It
was the Palatinate that supplied the greater share of the comers from the valley of the Rhine, in
the period, 1725-1775. A smaller share came from Switzerland. This little country did not suffer in
the Thirty Year's war and remained prosperous. But Switzerland was feudalistic at that time and
there was little real freedom for the mass of the inhabitants. The Swiss emigrated to better their
condition, the Palatines to escape the tyranny and corruption of their new government.

The remaining portion of the German immigration to America was chiefly from Wurtemburg.
Thus it will be seen that this German influx was almost exclusively from the upper part of the valley
of the Rhine. Except for the few Moravians from Saxony, the north of Germany had no hand in the
movement. The South Germans differ from the Prussians, who are not true Germans, but
Germanized Slavs. Yet neither are the people of the upper Rhine typical Germans. The black hair
and dark complexion they so frequently exhibit are due to a very extensive blend with an earlier
and brunette population. This helps to explain why the Alsatians, though speaking a dialect of
German, are so thoroughly French in sentiment.

When the Palatines began coming, the only settled portion of Pennsylvania was the southeast
corner. Here were the English Quakers, a sprinkling of Swedes, and the cluster of earlier comers at
Germantown. The Scotch-Irish were also pouring in. When it came to a "showdown," there was no
very cordial welcome for the deluge of strangers that bade fair to submerge the population already

Chapter IV 16 German Immigration in the 18th
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