Page 17 - History of UB Church by A. Funkhouser Ver 1
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on the ground. The Scotch-Irish spoke English but were not meek nor easy to get along with. The
Germans did not speak English and some of their customs were unfamiliar. (Nevertheless, they
were from the industrial classes of Germany.) They were intelligent, moral, self-sacrificing, and
most of them were religiously inclined. "No people in America were so subject to religious
excitement as the Germans of the eighteenth century." They became so numerous in the colony
that Benjamin Franklin began the publication of a German newspaper in 1734. Certain restrictive
laws were enacted by the provincial government. One of these required all German immigrants to
swear allegiance to the British government as a condition of their admission to the province. The
records kept as a result of this act give the name of the ship, the port from which it sailed, the date
of its arrival, and the names of its passengers. These records are therefore of much genealogic

Entire counties of Pennsylvania, such as Lancaster, York, Berks, Bucks, and Montgomery, were
occupied almost wholly by these German immigrants. The wave overflowed into the counties of
Frederick and Washington in Maryland.

In 1727 began the peopling of "New Virginia," which name was then applied to the section of
Virginia between the Blue Ridge and the Alleghanies. Along and near the Potomac this district was
settled mainly by English and Scotch-Irish pioneers. But southward from Winchester, nearly to the
line between Rockingham and Augusta, the German element was much in the lead. Augusta was
founded by the Scotch-Irish and had at first almost no Germans at all. Of the two classes the

Scotch-Irish were the more venturesome, although the Germans liked plenty of elbow room on

behalf of their descendants. So the former exhibited a strong propensity to sell out and get nearer,
ever nearer, to the inland frontier. Their places were often taken by the Germans. By the operation
of this tendency, the German blood in varying but generally large proportions, is now found
throughout the great length of the Valley of Virginia.

Nearly all the German settlers arrived by way of Pennsylvania. A small number came across the
Blue Ridge from the colony on the upper Rapidan founded by Governor Spottswood about 1710.

In 1775, one-third of the 300,000 inhabitants of Pennsylvania were of German birth or
parentage. So far as they adhered to any church, they were of the German Reformed, Lutheran,
and Mennonite faiths, the strength of the three bodies being in the order of their mention. As with
all the border communities of that day there was much lapsing with respect to religious conduct.
Many of the settlements were without pastors, houses of worship, or organized societies. There
was much laxity in manners and morals, and consequently a great need of missionary effort. The
German pastors were so few that they could seldom visit a frontier neighborhood oftener than once
or twice a year.

In the early spring of 1748, Gottschalk, a Moravian missionary, speaks thus of the Massanutten
settlement, situated on the South Branch of Shenandoah river just above the Luray valley: "Many
Germans live there. Most of them are Mennisten (Mennonites), who are in a bad condition. Nearly
all religious earnestness and zeal is extinguished among them. Besides them, a few church people
live there, partly Lutheran, partly Reformed." Gottschalk was much hindered in his efforts by the
opposition of the resident Lutheran pastor, and the prejudice aroused by stories circulated against
the Moravians. In the fall of the same year two missionaries of this sect were journeying up the
valley of the South Fork in what is now Pendleton county. They appointed a preaching service in the
house of a German living a few miles above where Brandywine now stands. The congregation was
made up almost wholly of women and children. The men of the settlement were hunting bear in
Shenandoah Mountain. The valley had been settled only about three years, and the style of living is
described in the journal of these missionaries as primitive in the extreme. They did not hesitate to
call it a near approach to savagery. By a much more recent writer it is thus described:

"The food, clothing, furniture and mode of life among the early German settlers were very plain
and simple. They drank nothing but water and milk (sometimes garden tea), except Sunday
morning, when they always had coffee. Meat was seldom eaten, and in their time it was considered
something quite extra to have meat on the table. At dinner time only, did they have meat, and
then the father would cut it in small pieces, give to each one of the family his allotted share, and
with that they had to be satisfied. During the greater part of the year they had hot mush and cold
milk for supper, and cold mush and warm milk for breakfast. It would have been considered
extravagant to have the mush fried in fat. Soup, of different kinds, was much used. The plates

Chapter IV 17 German Immigration in the 18th
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